Mental Preparation & Sports Psychology in Precision Sports – A Primer

By Mark V. Lonsdale

Sports psychology helps athletes control their minds and bodies to produce optimum sporting performance. It is also a critical part of coaching, communications, and team building. Sports psychology is all about mental toughness, focus, confidence, stress management, optimal arousal, motivation and commitment.

In any sport, including archery, the mental aspects of competition are every bit as important as the physical aspects, but often neglected. These mental skills are not just for the high performance elite athletes, but also for the recreational competitor struggling with the stresses of training for competitions. As Henry Ford said, “Whether you think you can, or think you can’t, you’re right.” In other words, if you do not wholeheartedly believe in yourself, then you will probably fail. Thinking or, more importantly believing that you can, is the first step towards achieving a goal or winning a tournament.  

At the international level, it is assumed that elite athletes are all at a similar level of physical fitness, endurance, technical proficiency, and experience. Look at the winning results in almost any Olympic sport and you will see that races and competitions are won by a hundredth of a second, tenths of an inch, a few millimeters, one or two points, or X count. So in looking for that winning edge, it often comes down to mental preparation and mental toughness.    

In addition to fitness, technical skills and experience, winning requires desire, determination, dedication, and sacrifice, all of which require mental toughness. Mental toughness is the psychological edge that helps an athlete to perform at a consistently high level.

Mentally tough athletes commonly exhibit four characteristics:

  1. A strong self-belief (confidence) in their ability to perform well
  2. An internal motivation or drive to be successful
  3. The ability to focus thoughts and feelings without distraction
  4. Composure under pressure

To aid in mental preparation, there are a number of skills to be studied, learned and applied to training and competition. The six mental skills for successful athletes are:

            1. The ability to concentrate and refocus

            2. Visualization and mental rehearsal

            3. Energizing

            4. Relaxation & breathing

            5. Maintaining a positive attitude

            6. Self motivation and being goal oriented

In training, the coach and athlete need to set a series of attainable goals and markers. Mental attitude will improve as these markers are achieved. Successful athletes set short, mid-term and long-term goals that are realistic, measurable, and time-oriented. You and your coach should be aware of your current performance levels and be able to develop specific detailed plans for attaining the next level. You must be highly committed to your goals and to the daily demands of your training programs. Knowing that you have trained harder and smarter than your opponents will put you in a positive frame of mind.

Pre-competition, an athlete must eliminate all personal issues and problems well before the championship. You cannot afford to be distracted by financial debts, rocky relationships, or personal conflicts. Your weight management routine must be on track to make your fighting weight category. From experience, you should have established a pre-tournament routine that begins the afternoon before the event. This may include a light workout, sauna, massage, stretch-band drills, or just relaxing, resting, and packing your gear bag for the next morning. Pre-tournament rituals are an important part of mental preparation. 

On competition day, be prepared to arrive early, rested and focused on the event. Allow time for equipment set-up, stretching, warm-ups. Know any changes to the match format, expected weather changes, shooting order, etc. Keep thinking positive – this is no time to be having doubts.

On game day athletes will perform better at optimum arousal, the mental state that puts an athlete “in the zone.” This is also known as the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) since the model suggests that the zone of optimal emotional and physiological intensity varies for each individual athlete. Anger, as one example, is a double edged sword since it can increase drive, energy, and power, but clouds thinking and decreases thought processes necessary for environmental analysis and game strategy.  

When you enter the arena or step up to the shooting line, do so with a positive attitude. Recite your mantra, “This is my day, this is my purpose….,” and maintain the proverbial Eye of the Tiger. Focus on shooting each arrow perfectly, not thinking about the finals or the medal ceremony.

Successful athletes know what they must pay attention to during each game or sporting situation. They have learned how to maintain focus and resist distractions, whether they come from the environment, other athletes, or from within themselves. They are able to regain their focus when concentration is lost during competition, and have learned how to play in the “here-and-now,” without regard to either past or future events. In archery, conscious thought process can actually interfere with smooth, efficient and confident shooting. The entire shot sequence, from stance and nocking to release and follow through must come from well rehearsed conditioned response. Archery is about confidence and feel – the confidence that comes with well structured training and the feel that comes from repetition and experience.

Dominating and winning in any sport requires that the athlete functions almost on auto pilot. What is often termed muscle memory is in reality conditioned response to external stimuli. It is also not wise to worry about the opponent’s strategy or tactics. Once you are on the shooting line you are competing more with yourself than with your opponents. Let the others worry about you.    

To conclude, just as the following apply to most successful athletes, they could work for you:

  1. Choose and maintain a positive attitude
  2. Maintain a high level of self-motivation
  3. Set realistic and attainable goals
  4. Deal effectively with other competitors and officials 
  5. Use positive self-talk (mantra)
  6. Use positive mental imagery (visualization)
  7. Manage anxiety & emotions effectively (coping mechanisms) 
  8. Maintain concentration (focus)
  9. Shoot each arrow and then move onto to the next one
  10. Manage your time and energy wisely between rounds or matches

Finally, love what you are doing and you will do it well.


Visualization and Mental Rehearsal in Archery

By Mark V. Lonsdale

Visualization and mental rehearsal are important components of success in most athletic endeavors. In other words, visualization is a process of consciously programming your subconscious mind to perform the way you want. For archery, this includes visualizing yourself shooting the perfect shot process from nocking to release and follow-through. You are visualizing your arrow hitting the 10 ring.

An important part of this mental game is positive reinforcement. For example, you don’t want to be saying to yourself, “don’t pluck the string” – instead say “clean release.” Don’t say, “don’t throw another 6” – instead say, “shoot for the 10”    

Training for indoor archery

By dwelling on not throwing a 6 in the blue, your mind is focused on the blue when you need to be focused on the yellow 10. What your conscious mind thinks about your subconscious mind will make you do. This is why you will often see a competitor throw a bad arrow, and then throw another bad arrow. They were so fixated on the high left 4 that they throw another high left 4. On the flip side, it is the mark of a champion when you see an athlete throw a bad arrow and then come right back with all 10s.

This goes back to the conscious mind programming the subconscious mind, and in an ideal world, after tens of thousands of repetitions, it is our subconscious mind that kicks in during competitions. As you will hear coaches say, “Don’t think, just shoot.”  Overthinking is not helpful when you have done the training, repetitions, and built the neuro-muscle memory programming.

To wrap this up, focus on what you want to do and not what you don’t want to do. And then visualize yourself doing the perfect shot process and scoring that dead center 10.


A positive attitude is part of mental toughness

The Mental Game in Archery

By Mark V. Lonsdale

This is no great secret, but it is a truth in precision sports. Don’t compete against the other shooters, compete with yourself. In other words, go out on the field to match your training scores or beat your personal best, not the archer next to you. In this way, you are not letting the other athletes get inside your head.

Most of us shoot better scores in practice, when there is no pressure and no audience, than we do in major competitions. Therefore, the mark of a champion is someone who can shoot just as well on match day as he or she does in practice. This tells us that he or she is unaffected by match pressure.

So when competing in competitions, don’t worry about what the other archers are shooting or where you are in the rankings. Just keep shooting your backyard practice game. Once you start stressing over your placing or ranking, then you have lost the purity of mind needed for archery. Archery requires total relaxed concentration and a strict adherence to process. Everything else is a distraction and a detriment to performance.

That said, it is only through competing regularly in competitions that you can develop the focus needed to block out all the activity around you. Keep in mind that there is another archer shooting in your lane and another in the next lane less than two feet away. You need to focus on nocking your arrow, setting your hook, and then turn your attention to the gold 10 ring. From there, relax and follow your shot process.

Parting shot – when you can shoot your practice scores on game day you are well on your way to making the winners’ circle.

One for the 50 meter Barebow shooters. A score of 54 or 55/60 may not look great for a compound or Olympic recurve archer, but for a Barebow shooter, who can do this repeatedly, this is a winning effort.



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